Betrigen Solutions

lead Acid Batteries Servicing/ Regeneration

THE NEED

The global use of lead-acid batteries and the EV Batteries are growing and therefore the importance of cost reduction for the purchase, maintenance and waste disposal of batteries has become of high priority.

The batteries industry has several issues:

Life expectancy for a batter y is 1-4 years.

Battery performance fades during its operational lifetime.

Battery prices are relatively high.

Used batteries are causing a major pollution to the environment.

The main reasons for the short life expectancy of batteries:
Sulfurization & crystallization over the lead plates.

Dry- out and acid and distilled water quality–The plates paste is shading to the cell’s bottom and creates sediment, which causes electrical short circuits inside the battery.

Corrosion.

Swollen.

Battery manufactures business model.

Lead Acid Batteries Advantages

1.2V open circuit voltage.

2.Low Cost.

3.Reliable.

4.Robust and tolerant of abuse.

5.Low internal Impedance – Can deliver very high currents.

6.Indefinite shelf-life if stored without electrolyte.

7.Can be left on trickle or float charge for prolonged periods.

8.Wide range of sizes and capacities available.

9.Many suppliers world-wide.

The worlds most recycled product

Lead Acid Batteries Limitations

1.Low energy density (<40 Wh/kg, 120 Wh/l).

2.Not suitable for fast charging (<1/3C) – Thermal runaway when charged not properly.

3.Typical life of 300 to 500 cycles.

4.Safety – Release Hydrogen.

5.Must be stored in a charged state to avoid deterioration of the active chemicals.

6.Manufacturers “Business Models”.

Battery Construction

1.Low energy density (<40 Wh/kg, 120 Wh/l).

2.Not suitable for fast charging (<1/3C) – Thermal runaway when charged not properly.

3.Typical life of 300 to 500 cycles.

4.Safety – Release Hydrogen.

5.Must be stored in a charged state to avoid deterioration of the active chemicals.

The plates are interlaced with a terminal attached to each plate group.

The terminals of the individual cells are connected together by link connectors.

The cells are connected in series in the battery.

Battery Technologies:

Three common lead-acid battery technologies:

1.Flooded

2.Gel

3.AGM

Vented and Valve Regulated Battery Systems

Flooded – Vented battery, AGM and Gel – Valve regulated

 Sealed for life design – no topping up, no acid fumes, no forced ventilation required.

No special battery room required- can be sited with or within an electronic system enclosure.

 Lighter and smaller than traditional vented cells.

Flooded (Wet Cells)

The oldest types of lead acid batteries.

Electrolyte in these batteries is liquid sulfuric acid solution.

VRLA batteries generate and vent dangerous explosive gases through their valve regulation and must be vented to the outside world.

These batteries also acid “mist” during charging and discharging. This leads to the corrosion of their terminals, and often-acid damage to surrounding surfaces.

VRLA Flooded batteries must be installed upright, can leak that acid, and require regular watering.

Less expansive from all 3 types

Gelled Electrolyte Lead Acid Battery (Gel)

Their acid is immobilized by adding “fumed” silica to the sulfuric acid solution and then sealing the battery.

They internally recombine most of the gases (hydrogen and oxygen) generated during charging and are maintenance free.

Gel electrolyte is highly viscous and during charge and discharge the gel can develop voids (pockets) or cracks when the amperage is increased.

These pockets impede acid flow and result in the loss of battery capacity.

Absorbed Glass Mat Valve Regulated - AGM

The acid is absorbed into a very fine glass mat and held in place by capillary action.

This construction technique, in coordination with double wall design, and sealing has many advantages.

There is never a way to make the acid free to slosh around.

By keeping the “moist” with electrolyte, gas recombination is more efficient (99% AGM). This leads to fewer incidents of exploding batteries.

Since the AGM material has an extremely low electrical resistance, the battery delivers much higher power and efficiency than other battery types.

Charging

In a back up system charge the cells in a voltage range of 2.17 – 2.27 volts for having the maximal colander life.

Charging over 2.4v will speed up corrosion.

In slow charging 2.35v is recommended.

For cyclic applications the charging voltage should be 2.4 – 2.45 volts.

UPS Battery Maintenance

Use a proper charger and charging conditions.

Avoid over charging.

Verify the electrolyte level.

Keep the system clean.

Avoid over heat from the batteries

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